This work aimed to conduct a systematic study of the macroinvertebrate species of seventeen temporary pools in south of Oum El Bouaghi, in order to bring a contribution to the knowledge of the entomofauna of these ephemeral ecosystems, and analyze their waters for better characterization of their environment where 18 physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Faunal samples were harvested using a surgeon net. The identification of the organisms was done using the determination keys, Tachet et al. (2002), and digital keys. The results of the physicochemical analysis carried out on the 17 stations revealed that the temperature of the water varied between 12.6 ° C and 20.3 ° C, with an average of 17.36 ± 2.13 ° C, the pH of the waters varied between 6.45 and 8.48, with an average of 7.34 ± 0.54. The dissolved oxygen showed an average of 5.81 ± 0.66mg / l, and the electrical conductivity of the waters of the region was large and varied between 966 and 1055 μS.cm-1, with an average value of 1012.1 ± 20.17 μS.cm -1. For pollution elements, only nitrates could present a serious contamination. Faunistic analysis has identified 11 orders, 31 families and 47 species of which 39 were constant, 7 were ubiquitous and only one was accessory. Beetles were the largest numerically important ecological group (41.94%), followed by odonates with 9.68%, followed by orders from Amphipods and Basommatophores with 6.45%, while other orders represented only 3.22% each.