Three sites were chosen at the province of Guelma (Northeast Algeria) to carry out a first palynological study of its atmosphere and to highlight the pollen content, among other things, the diversity and the presence of allergenic pollen. The gravimetric method was chosen to ensure the trapping of pollen in suspension in the air, during eitht months of follow-up. In order to carry out a checklist, anemophilous, entomophilous and anemo-entomophilous pollen identification and counting were carried out as well as that the allergenic and non-allergenic families. Thus, 3,348 pollen grains, belonging to 33 families, were captured, of which 2,186 are anemophilous, 756 entomophilous and 406 are anemo-entomophilous. In addition, 35 species and 31 genera were identified in the atmosphere of the three studied sites. As for the allergenic potential, 65% of the identified families are allergenic, mainly in March and April, while 35% have no risk of allergy. This diversity opens up an important field for the disciplines of palynology and allergology in the studied area, because the continued presence of pollen, especially the one with an allergenic potential, as well as the extended pollination seasons, may present risks to public health.