The census of Lepidoptera in palm groves of Algeria was the highest number of Rhopalocera (52.2%) followed by Heterocera (48.8%). The inventory carried out in 5 palm groves stations identified 13 families, which the Lycaenidae are the most captured with 266 individuals (20%). Overall, this type of environment is relatively diverse (Shannon Weaver Index: H' = 3.17 bits), with a tendency towards balance (Equitability Index: E = 0.76). The first palm grove was characterized by the highest richness quantified with 49 species (Average richness: Sm = 9.8 ± 14.9), with a total of 62 species for all stations. Among the latter, Zizeeria knysna (Individual number: IN= 190), Mirificarma interrupta (IN = 143), Pieris rapae (IN = 121) and Cynthia cardui (IN = 113) were the most recorded. The maximum capture was recorded during the months of April (IN = 183) and October (IN = 184) with a temperature approaching 24 °C. Concerning agricultural interest and phenological status, non-harmful species were highly captured (841), which the majority are sedentary (IN = 465). They were represented by non-harmful migratory Rhopalocera (IN = 293) and non-harmful sedentary Heterocera (IN = 275).