World Journal of Environmental Biosciences
World Journal of Environmental Biosciences
2020 Volume 9 Issue 1

Tehran Privacy - Legal Principles, Problems and Reasons for Failure


Masoud Masoumi
Abstract

Tehran as the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran has about 8.7 million inhabitants, according to the census of 2016 and this is equivalent to 10% of the total population of the country[1]. Accelerated and uncontrolled growth of concentration of population, wealth, and activity in the city of Tehran has led to several problems such as loss of quality of life, air pollution, water scarcity, waste and waste disposal problems, traffic in the communication network, constrained construction in Tehran and surrounding cities, as well as disturbing the regional balance of the whole country regarding the distribution of the urban population. The lack of a plan for land reclamation and the lack of decentralization policies are among the main causes of these problems.

In 1970, Tehran's first master plan was approved[2]. The plan had approved boundaries and privacy. Eventually, in 2007, the second comprehensive plan was approved with a 27-year delay. According to current laws in Iran, each city should have an independent map of the boundary and privacy[3]. “ City boundary ” is an area including the built-in texture plus the land designated for the development of the future horizon[4]. “ City privacy ” is also a territory around the city boundary in three to five times more than the city boundary[5]. This privacy is for the development of the city in the following decades and the deployment of specific activities. (The figure No 2 shows the city boundary of Tehran which Approved in 1970).

Unfortunately, in the past four decades, Tehran has never had a logical and legal privacy map that has been approved by all. Not having a suitable privacy map has practically, directly, and indirectly caused management problems and has a very negative effect on urban management, the environment, urban economics, land use, and so on. In this article, the legal principles, analysis of the problems, and perspectives in the field of the privacy of Tehran, and finally the proposed strategy for addressing 40 years of privacy have been discussed.

 

[1] According to the Population and Housing Census of 2016, Tehran province has 43 independent cities. The total population of the province is 13 million and 267 thousand people, 12 million and 452 thousand people (93.85%) are urban and the rest are rural. From among the total urban population, 8 million and 693 thousand people live in Tehran and the rest (3,758 thousand) in 42 other provinces. Among the total 3 million and 758 thousand people, 2.5 million people live in 25 cities in Tehran, and in this article they are referred to as 25 cities or 25 surrounding.

[2] In addition, in 1992, the "Tehran Reconstruction Plan" was prepared. That was not a comprehensive plan, and it was pursuing the goal of organizing. This plan was not implemented.( ATEC Consulting Engineers, 1992)

[3]  “Privacy” word roots in Arabic that has entered the Persian language. Privacy is a legal term that implies the notion of prohibition and restriction. Therefore, the privacy of the city is a land that even urban development always faces with strict prohibitions and considerations.

[4] This course is in Iran for a comprehensive 10-year plan. And only in certain cases where the previous approved city boundary is too large, the life of the comprehensive plan can be 15 years.

[5] The proportional area of ​​the area is 3 to 5 times the High Authority for Urbanism and Architecture of Iran in paragraph 7 of the resolution dated 6-8-2007 and the subsequent amendment to the resolution dated 27-7-2006. (Vatankhah and Aghvami Moghaddam, 2011) But this rule has not been well respected by the High Council for all cities. As an example, Andisheh, Golestan and Kahrizak are not eligible, and the area of ​​the city's privacy is less than twice the boundary of ​​the city. Of course, it should be noted that sometimes due to the close proximity of cities to each other and the small size of the land, or even the small size of the division of the political division and the city, there is no choice but to disregard that proportion. In the case of Tehran, this area has been approved by the Supreme Council 10 times more than the boundary


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