Plastic use and production have increased significantly since the turn of the 20th century. Because most of the devices and consumables we use are made of plastic, it has become an indispensable component of our daily lives. Plastic waste management practices that result in soil and water pollution have a harmful influence on our planet. Plastics also take longer to decompose in nature and are not biodegradable. A recent issue associated with plastics still being present in the environment is the generation of microplastics. Microplastics are defined as any plastic particles that are less than 5mm in length. These microplastics can easily pollute due to their small size. Such microparticles harm the ecosystem and the life it supports due to their pervasive existence. The main topics of this review are the different sources of microplastics, their classification, the various ways they are dispersed in the environment, their isolation, detection, and characterization from environmental samples, the toxicological effects of microplastics on different life forms, and the control and clean-up of microplastics from the environment.