A recent floral study includes an inventory and analysis of floral biodiversity in five wadis in Oum El Bouaghi region. A floristic inventory spread over a period of one year (2015 to 2016). This study conducted to identify 80 species belonging to 28 families, the family best represented is Asteraceae with (47%), and the most diverse sites are wadi Meskiana and wadi Dahmane with 57 and 34 species, respectively. Species indicative of environmental disturbance or soil degradation and drought have been identified. For the distribution and the floristic diversity, several factors are motioned, such as the aridity of the climate of the studied environment, the drought and the anthropic pollution of these rivers. A local flora database has been updated.