This study was conducted at the level of seven (7) bodies of water in the Oum el Bouaghi wetland complex (highlands of eastern Algeria) in order to evaluate the structure and composition of the waterbird community that frequents the sites. Our results allowed us to inventory 41 species belonging to 13 different families. Among these families we note the family of Anatidae which is the richest in terms of species and abundance. The majority of the species observed in these wetlands have a phenological status of nesting and / or sedentary, which illustrates the essential role of this complex for the balance of birds between Algerian wetlands. On the other hand, no significant variation between sampled stations is noted during the years 2014 and 2015 respectively. Finally, we point out the importance of this complex for some endangered species cases of the Marbled Duck, the White-headed Duck and the Ferruginous Duck hence the need for a management plan for these wetlands.