World Journal of Environmental Biosciences
World Journal of Environmental Biosciences
2021 Volume 10 Issue 2

Herbal Solid Perfume: A Turkish Concept-Based Synthesis and Quality Valuation


Rashmi Saxena Pal1*, Pranay Wal2, Pankaj Kumar3, Yogendra Pal4, Sheetal5


1 Institute of Pharmacy, Rashmi Saxena Pal, Ass, PSIT, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

2 Institute of Pharmacy, Pranay Wal, PSIT, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pankaj Kumar, Nitte (Deemed to be University), NGSMIPS, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

4 Institute of Pharmacy, Yogendra Pal, PSIT, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

5 Institute of Pharmacy, Sheetal, PSIT, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.


Perfume has been in the life of humans since ancient times. Today's era has led to the formation of different fragrant liquids as per the people's perception. Solid perfume is generally constituted of all herbal ingredients, except in some cases, it has usually three main ingredients: beeswax, carrier oil, and essential oils. It is applied topically on pulse points with the help of a finger or a cotton swab. Various evaluation tests were performed individually on ingredients to identify them and assess their quality. These evaluation techniques were of organoleptic, physical, and chemical nature. The prepared formulation of herbal solid perfume consisted of many merits as ease of application, patient convenience, portable formulation, less risk in storage, higher efficiency in low quantity. Demerits observed were larger particle size of any constituents, which may lead to a decrease in uniformity of formulation, chances of allergic reactions in patients, poor absorption & permeability due to other factors.

Keywords: Herbal, Perfume, Solid, Synthesis, Evaluation, Natural



Medicinal plants have seen their universal role in many of the medicine systems irrespective of the methodologies and concepts. This system of medicines, ranging from western systems to the Unani system of medicine and from Ayurveda in the Indian subcontinent to oriental system of medicine in China & Japan, has seen the perspectives of medicinal plants (Brandt et al., 2018). Apart from being used specifically as drugs, these also play important role in the various other industries, like the food and cosmetic industry, for exhibiting therapeutic effects. Various plant sources are used as nutraceuticals to provide a nutritionally enriched supplement to consumers. In the cosmetic industry, the usage of natural sources is done to make creams, gels, oils, and masks, make-up cosmetics, moisturizers, balms, and much more. Production of volatile oils or essential oils from plant sources has led to the expansion of aroma industries and perfumery to new horizons (Chisvert and López-Nogueroles, 2019).


The word perfume has originated from the Latin word ‘per fumum’, meaning ‘through smoke’. The evidence of its existence was traced 4000 years back in Mesopotamia in the custom of incense. The science of perfume is chemistry and the perfumed result is creativity. The philological of perfumery bears spectator to its inherent aesthetic qualities. Classification of fragrance is based on their concentration levels, the scent family they belong to, and the notes in the scent (Barwich, 2016). Concentration level defines the intensity and predicted duration of its existence on the skin. Higher the concentration of fragrance, durable will be its scent and longer the extent on the skin surface.

  • Parfum- 15% to 30% aromatic compounds
  • Eau de Parfum- 8% to 15% aromatic compounds
  • Eau de toilette - 4% to 8% aromatic compounds
  • Eau de cologne - 2% to 5% aromatic compounds (Tortora and Derrickson, 2020; Fratini et al., 2016)

The perfumes are distinguished by the characteristic smell possessed by the particular scent family and scent family subtypes. These names of the scent are from traditional classification terms.

Scent families 

Oriental, Chypre, Marine/Ozonic, Floral, Fougère, Green, Citrus and Gourmand.

Scent Family Subtypes

fresh, aldehyde, fruity, amber, spicy, woody, and animalistic.

The fragrance wheel, as in the Figure 1, is new cataloging shaped in 1983 by Michael Edwards. Each category contains three subtypes except fougère, as it large family of scents derived from each of the above four classes.

  • Floral: - Floral, Floral Oriental, Soft Floral
  • Oriental: - Oriental, Soft Oriental, Woody Oriental
  • Woody: - Wood, Mossy Woods, Dry Woods
  • Fresh: - Citrus, Green, Water
  • Fougère (Sowndhararajan and Kim, 2016; Lin et al, 2018; Mohebitabar et al., 2017)


Figure 1. Fragrance Wheel

Need of Perfumes

  • It gives the idea of hygiene and personal care.
  • Smelling good gives the idea of personal care and also represents positive vibes.
  • Wearing particular scents during different work may help in remembering certain events and activities.
  • An odor also helps in the amplification of mood.
  • Smelling good also elevates confidence.
  • Many fragrant essential oils are used in treatments through aromatherapy or naturopathy.
  • Perfumes also play an important role in attracting or deviating.
  • Overall, it just not only helps in improving health but also removing stress and creating a positive lifestyle. (Boukhatem and Setzer, 2020)

Solid Perfume

Solid perfumes, in general terms, are the perfume in a solid base instead of a liquid one like water or alcohol. The substances used for the solid base are waxes that can be easily melted to mix perfumes and, at room temperature, can easily be solidified. Examples of bases used are beeswax, Vaseline, petroleum jelly, etc. It is applied to the skin with the help of fingers or a cotton swab. The strength of scent of a solid perfume solely depends on the strength of essential oils used. Solid perfumes are a compact way of perfume that can be easily carried from one place to another (Sarkic and Stappen, 2018).


The skin covers the external surface of the body and is the largest organ in weight. It approximately covers 2 square meters. The skin mainly contains two parts: Epidermis and Dermis. The absorption of water-soluble substances through the skin is negligible but certain lipid-soluble materials penetrate the skin layers. Such substances are certain, drugs fat-soluble vitamins, and gases as carbon dioxide and oxygen. In the case of topical steroids, which are lipid-soluble, they reach easily to the papillary region of the dermis. Absorption through the skin has also given rise to the transdermal route of drug administration (Sowndhararajan and Kim, 2016).


Materials chosen in this work were complete of natural origin. Herbal solid perfume requires three main ingredients that are:

  • Beeswax
  • Carrier oils
  • Essential oils (Baqueiro-Peña and Guerrero-Beltrán, 2017)

Necessity of Ingredients In This Formulation


It takes the carrier oil from a liquid state to a solid-state. Beeswax, as in Figure 2, also works as a barrier to retain the essential oil-based perfume for a longer duration of time. It is usually the wax part of honeycomb, with yellow or light brown color, a characteristic odor of honey is solid, non-crystalline in appearance, insoluble in water, is chemical, composed of 80% myricyl palmitate, myricyl stearate, 15% free cerotic acid, cerolein, hydrocarbons, lactones, cholesterol esters, and pollen pigments (Sung and Lin, 2017; Mishra, 2017).


Figure 2. Beeswax

Almond Oil

Seeds of Prunus dulcis, Rosaceae, give oil, as in Figure 3, which is golden yellow, odorless, chemically contains 40-55% fixed oils, 20% proteins, mucilage, emulsion, 2.5-4% amygdalins. These oils are also referred to as nourishing or moisturizing oils, also working as a vehicle for this formulation. Many carrier oils like grape seed oil, almond oil, jojoba oil, avocado oil, and coconut oil can also be used (Bernal et al., 2005).

Figure 3. Almond Oil

Essential oils

Single essential oil can be used to create one-and-done perfume. Custom scents can be created by blending the oils and experimenting with the scents by comparing the strength of the smell. Apart from having a single purpose of perfume, essential oils also exhibit many other effects like hydration, moisturizer, soothing effect (Franklin and Mitchell, 2019).

Rose Essential Oil

obtained from flower petals of Rosa damascene Mill., R. canina, R. centifolia, R. galica, R. moschata & R. rugosa, belonging to family Rosaceae, is rich in terpenes as citronellol, geraniol, nerol, famesol, and rose oxide.

Vanilla Essential Oil

from vanilla pods, Vanilla fragrans, V. plantifolia, belonging to family Orchidaceae, is chemically composed of vanillin, anisyl alcohol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, piperonal, vitispirane (Chavan et al., 2020).

Preparation Of Herbal Solid Perfume

  • 10 grams of beeswax and 30 ml of almond oil were taken in a beaker of 100 ml and heated over a water bath till they melt.
  • 50 drops of vanilla essential oil and 40 drops of rose essential oil were mixed simultaneously in another beaker of 50 ml.
  • Poured the mixture of beeswax and almond oil into the storage container.
  • After a minute, when the liquid starts cooling, added the mixture of essential oils in it with gentle stirring.
  • The lid was closed and the perfume was then allowed to cool before use, as in Figure 4.